%0 Journal Article
%J Acta Comportamentalia
%D 2005
%T La Validez desde una óptica psicométrica [Validity from a psychometric perspective]
%A Muñiz, J.
%K Factor Analysis
%K Measurement
%K Psychometrics
%K Scaling (Testing)
%K Statistical
%K Technology
%K Test Validity
%X El estudio de la validez constituye el eje central de los análisis psicométricos de los instrumentos de medida. En esta comunicación se traza una breve nota histórica de los distintos modos de concebir la validez a lo largo de los tiempos, se comentan las líneas actuales, y se tratan de vislumbrar posibles vías futuras, teniendo en cuenta el impacto que las nuevas tecnologías informáticas están ejerciendo sobre los propios instrumentos de medida en Psicología y Educación. Cuestiones como los nuevos formatos multimedia de los ítems, la evaluación a distancia, el uso intercultural de las pruebas, las consecuencias de su uso, o los tests adaptativos informatizados, reclaman nuevas formas de evaluar y conceptualizar la validez. También se analizan críticamente algunos planteamientos recientes sobre el concepto de validez. The study of validity constitutes a central axis of psychometric analyses of measurement instruments. This paper presents a historical sketch of different modes of conceiving validity, with commentary on current views, and it attempts to predict future lines of research by considering the impact of new computerized technologies on measurement instruments in psychology and education. Factors such as the new multimedia format of items, distance assessment, the intercultural use of tests, the consequences of the latter, or the development of computerized adaptive tests demand new ways of conceiving and evaluating validity. Some recent thoughts about the concept of validity are also critically analyzed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2005 APA ) (journal abstract)
%B Acta Comportamentalia
%V 13
%P 9-20
%G eng
%0 Journal Article
%J Journal of Educational Measurement
%D 2001
%T Item selection in computerized adaptive testing: Should more discriminating items be used first?
%A Hau, Kit-Tai
%A Chang, Hua-Hua
%K ability
%K Adaptive Testing
%K Computer Assisted Testing
%K Estimation
%K Statistical
%K Test Items computerized adaptive testing
%X During computerized adaptive testing (CAT), items are selected continuously according to the test-taker's estimated ability. Test security has become a problem because high-discrimination items are more likely to be selected and become overexposed. So, there seems to be a tradeoff between high efficiency in ability estimations and balanced usage of items. This series of four studies addressed the dilemma by focusing on the notion of whether more or less discriminating items should be used first in CAT. The first study demonstrated that the common maximum information method with J. B. Sympson and R. D. Hetter (1985) control resulted in the use of more discriminating items first. The remaining studies showed that using items in the reverse order, as described in H. Chang and Z. Yings (1999) stratified method had potential advantages: (a) a more balanced item usage and (b) a relatively stable resultant item pool structure with easy and inexpensive management. This stratified method may have ability-estimation efficiency better than or close to that of other methods. It is argued that the judicious selection of items, as in the stratified method, is a more active control of item exposure. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2005 APA )
%B Journal of Educational Measurement
%V 38
%P 249-266
%G eng
%0 Journal Article
%J Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences
%D 2000
%T Lagrangian relaxation for constrained curve-fitting with binary variables: Applications in educational testing
%A Koppel, N. B.
%K Analysis
%K Educational Measurement
%K Mathematical Modeling
%K Statistical
%X This dissertation offers a mathematical programming approach to curve fitting with binary variables. Various Lagrangian Relaxation (LR) techniques are applied to constrained curve fitting. Applications in educational testing with respect to test assembly are utilized. In particular, techniques are applied to both static exams (i.e. conventional paper-and-pencil (P&P)) and adaptive exams (i.e. a hybrid computerized adaptive test (CAT) called a multiple-forms structure (MFS)). This dissertation focuses on the development of mathematical models to represent these test assembly problems as constrained curve-fitting problems with binary variables and solution techniques for the test development. Mathematical programming techniques are used to generate parallel test forms with item characteristics based on item response theory. A binary variable is used to represent whether or not an item is present on a form. The problem of creating a test form is modeled as a network flow problem with additional constraints. In order to meet the target information and the test characteristic curves, a Lagrangian relaxation heuristic is applied to the problem. The Lagrangian approach works by multiplying the constraint by a "Lagrange multiplier" and adding it to the objective. By systematically varying the multiplier, the test form curves approach the targets. This dissertation explores modifications to Lagrangian Relaxation as it is applied to the classical paper-and-pencil exams. For the P&P exams, LR techniques are also utilized to include additional practical constraints to the network problem, which limit the item selection. An MFS is a type of a computerized adaptive test. It is a hybrid of a standard CAT and a P&P exam. The concept of an MFS will be introduced in this dissertation, as well as, the application of LR as it is applied to constructing parallel MFSs. The approach is applied to the Law School Admission Test for the assembly of the conventional P&P test as well as an experimental computerized test using MFSs. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2005 APA )
%B Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences
%V 61
%P 1063
%G eng